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See All Customer Reviews. Shop Books. Add to Wishlist. USD Sign in to Purchase Instantly. Explore Now. Buy As Gift. Overview Now that the No Child Left Behind Act has left its mark on public education, educators across the United States are all the more invested in preparing their students for state and national assessments. Product Details Table of Contents. The estimate is derived from the analysis of test scores and other relevant data from a sample drawn from the population. This type of test identifies whether the test taker performed better or worse than other students taking this test.

A criterion-referenced test CRT is a style of test which uses test scores to show whether or not test takers performed well on a given task, not how well they performed compared to other test takers. Most tests and quizzes that are written by school teachers can be considered criterion-referenced tests.

In this case, the objective is simply to see whether the student has learned the material. Human scoring is relatively expensive and often variable, which is why computer scoring is preferred when feasible. For example, some critics say that poorly paid employees will score tests badly. Sometimes states pay to have two or more scorers read each paper; if their scores do not agree, then the paper is passed to additional scorers. Open-ended components of tests are often only a small proportion of the test.

Most commonly, a major academic test includes both human-scored and computer-scored sections. Along with scoring the actual tests, teachers are being scored on how well their own students are performing on the tests. Teachers are faced with the incredible pressure to continuously bring scores up to be judged on whether or not they are worthy of keeping their job.

There has been a lot of discussion covering how accurate of a way that to score a teachers' success because there are so many factors that go in to how well his or her students perform. Students' intellectual level is judged by the score they receive, but the issue is that even if a student scores well on a standardized test that gets them to college, that does not imply that the student is smart. A student can do well on the test and fail out of college.

It is not the best indicator of how well a student actually performs, but how well they test. There is a lack of oversight. Teachers are told to watch over the students and be as organized as possible when collecting and grading the tests, but there are numerous sources stating all of these instances where students, even teachers are cheating. Students have been known to somehow accommodate the answers, or during breaks, teachers are not told to watch over the conversations held; they could easily discuss questions and figure out the answers together.

Teachers, more of which are in "desperate situations" find that they are changing the answers for their students themselves to make it look like they are great teachers and it would take away from the pressure they feel in raising scores. Teacher 1: This answer mentions one of the required items, so it is correct. Teacher 2: This answer is correct. Teacher 1: I feel like this answer is good enough, so I'll mark it correct. Teacher 2: This answer is correct, but this good student should be able to do better than that, so I'll only give partial credit. Teacher 1: I feel like this answer is correct and complete, so I'll give full credit.

Teacher 2: This answer is correct, so I'll give full points. Teacher 1: This answer does not mention any of the required items. No points. Teacher 2: This answer is wrong. No credit. Teacher 1: This answer is wrong. Teacher 2: This answer is wrong, but this student tried hard and the sentence is grammatically correct, so I'll give one point for effort.

There are two types of standardized test score interpretations: a norm-referenced score interpretation or a criterion-referenced score interpretation. Either of these systems can be used in standardized testing. What is important to standardized testing is whether all students are asked equivalent questions, under equivalent circumstances, and graded equally.

In a standardized test, if a given answer is correct for one student, it is correct for all students. Graders do not accept an answer as good enough for one student but reject the same answer as inadequate for another student. The considerations of validity and reliability typically are viewed as essential elements for determining the quality of any standardized test. However, professional and practitioner associations frequently have placed these concerns within broader contexts when developing standards and making overall judgments about the quality of any standardized test as a whole within a given context.

In the field of evaluation , and in particular educational evaluation , the Joint Committee on Standards for Educational Evaluation [29] has published three sets of standards for evaluations. Each publication presents and elaborates a set of standards for use in a variety of educational settings. The standards provide guidelines for designing, implementing, assessing and improving the identified form of evaluation. Each of the standards has been placed in one of four fundamental categories to promote educational evaluations that are proper, useful, feasible, and accurate.

In these sets of standards, validity and reliability considerations are covered under the accuracy topic. The tests are aimed at ensuring that student evaluations will provide sound, accurate, and credible information about student learning and performance, however; standardized tests offer narrow information on many forms of intelligence and relying on them harms students because they inaccurately measure a student's potential for success. In the field of psychometrics , the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing [33] place standards about validity and reliability, along with errors of measurement and issues related to the accommodation of individuals with disabilities.

The third and final major topic covers standards related to testing applications, credentialing , plus testing in program evaluation and public policy. Standardized testing is considered important and these tests do assess what is taught on the national level. They are used to measure objectives and how schools are meeting educational state standards. There are three primary reasons for Standardized tests: Comparing among test takers, Improvement of ongoing instruction and learning, and Evaluation of instruction.

Considering the information presented above, students undergoing the testing have been told to not spend copious amounts of their own time to study and prepare for the tests, although students believe they need to do well to ensure they don't let down their school. Standardized tests put large amounts of pressure on students. Some children who are considered at the top of their class choke when it comes to standardized tests such as the citywide. Standardized testing is used as a public policy strategy to establish stronger accountability measures for public education.

While the National Assessment of Education Progress NAEP has served as an educational barometer for some thirty years by administering standardized tests on a regular basis to random schools throughout the United States, efforts over the last decade at the state and federal levels have mandated annual standardized test administration for all public schools across the country.

The idea behind the standardized testing policy movement is that testing is the first step to improving schools, teaching practice, and educational methods through data collection. Proponents argue that the data generated by the standardized tests act like a report card for the community, demonstrating how well local schools are performing. Critics of the movement, however, point to various discrepancies that result from current state standardized testing practices, including problems with test validity and reliability and false correlations see Simpson's paradox.

Critics also charge that standardized tests encourage " teaching to the test " at the expense of creativity and in-depth coverage of subjects not on the test. Multiple choice tests are criticized for failing to assess skills such as writing. Furthermore, student's success is being tracked to a teacher's relative performance, making teacher advancement contingent upon a teacher's success with a student's academic performance.

Ethical and economical questions arise for teachers when faced with clearly underperforming or underskilled students and a standardized test. Critics also object to the type of material that is typically tested by schools. Although standardized tests for non-academic attributes such as the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking exist, schools rarely give standardized tests to measure initiative, creativity, imagination, curiosity, good will, ethical reflection, or a host of other valuable dispositions and attributes.

One of the main advantages of standardized testing is that the results can be empirically documented; therefore, the test scores can be shown to have a relative degree of validity and reliability , as well as results which are generalizable and replicable. It may be difficult to account for differences in educational culture across schools, difficulty of a given teacher's curriculum, differences in teaching style, and techniques and biases that affect grading.

This makes standardized tests useful for admissions purposes in higher education, where a school is trying to compare students from across the nation or across the world. Performance on these exams have been speculated to change based on the way standards like the Common Core State Standards CCSS line up with top countries across the world.

Focus is defined as the number of topics covered in each grade; the idea is that the fewer topics covered in each grade, the more focus can be given to each topic. The definition of coherence is adhering to a sequence of topics covered that follows the natural progression or logical structure of mathematics. With the most number of topics covered on average, the current state standards had the lowest focus.

They encourage educational materials to go from covering a vast array of topics in a shallow manner to a few topics in much more depth. Standardized tests also remove teacher bias in assessment. Research shows that teachers create a kind of self-fulfilling prophecy in their assessment of students, granting those they anticipate will achieve with higher scores and giving those who they expect to fail lower grades.

Another advantage is aggregation. A well designed standardized test provides an assessment of an individual's mastery of a domain of knowledge or skill which at some level of aggregation will provide useful information. That is, while individual assessments may not be accurate enough for practical purposes, the mean scores of classes, schools, branches of a company, or other groups may well provide useful information because of the reduction of error accomplished by increasing the sample size.

Opponents claim that standardized tests are misused and uncritical judgments of intelligence and performance, but supporters argue that these aren't negatives of standardized tests, but criticisms of poorly designed testing regimes. If the student gets the right answer, he or she gets to keep the card. If the student does not know the answer, the card is placed on the bottom of the deck, and the responder then draws a question to ask the next person in the circle. At the end of the allotted time frame or when all cards have been drawn, the cards are counted.

Students love the game and quickly learn the required definitions or vocabulary meanings that you want them to master. Just as students who read more become better readers, students who write more become better writers and communicators. Find ways to have students use reflective writing and thinking about the concepts they are learning, the questions they have, and the things they want to know.

The more we can have students write about processes, procedures, the things they know, and the things that still confuse them, the better strategic thinkers they will become. Test-Taking Tips That Help Students Although much of test success depends on the quality of the instruction provided throughout the school year, a few strategies are helpful ch2. First, students pick up on our attitude toward the tests, even when we try not to overtly communicate our feelings. Thus, try to maintain an open, matter-offact attitude toward the evaluations you administer.

Testing can be tedious, but it is a part of how the educational system works. Although we should encourage students to perform to the best of their abilities, students do better in an atmosphere of confidence and encouragement rather than one of tension and pressure. Second, consider posting the suggestions listed here on the wall. Ask your students to review these hints every time you give them either a multiple-choice or a constructed-response exam.


When regular instruction includes some of the same skills and activities that will appear on state assessments, students are comfortable and confident when they must take those tests. Hints for Taking Multiple-Choice Tests 1. Do not linger too long on any question. Try to eliminate obviously wrong answers, mark your best guess, and move on.

If time permits, return to questionable items later and review them. Answer questions in order without skipping any questions. If you are unsure about your answer, either make a mark in the margin by that question, or, if you are not permitted to mark in the testing booklet, jot down the number of the question on scratch paper. Return to these questions if time permits, but change your answer only if you are absolutely sure that the response you have marked is incorrect. Often your first response is the correct one.

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Reread all questions with negative wording such as not or least. Watch out for sentences that have double or triple negatives within the sentence. Look for words such as all, most, none, some, always, usually, seldom, or never. When these words appear, the entire statement must be true for the response to be correct. Watch out for names, dates, places, or details that might appear in the statement that could make it inaccurate. Sometimes one detail will be changed in an otherwise-correct statement.

Watch out for statements that have multiple ideas or concepts, since all parts of these must be true to be the correct answer. Check for grammatical inconsistencies between the answer chosen and the question stem. A choice that does not match the stem is probably not the correct response. When reviewing your responses, change an answer only if you have a valid reason for doing so.

Remember, your first guess is often the correct one. Hints for Taking Essay Tests 1. Read through the prompt, and immediately jot down all ideas, formulas, or pertinent facts that come to mind. If you have more than one essay question, do the easier ones first if possible. If point values are indicated for the individual questions, respond to the questions that have the most points first. Circle or underline the indicator words such as define, list, compare, explain, identify, illustrate, or support so that you know what it is that you are being asked to do in the essay.

Do not leave a question blank. Do your best to answer as much as you can even if you are not sure that it is correct. You might get a point or two even if you cannot correctly complete the entire response or solve the whole problem correctly. If the prompt asks for a specific number of points, be sure that you have provided the correct number of points in your response.

Before you write, make a simple outline to organize your notes into a logical and sensible sequence. Quickly introduce your topic, and then spend your time getting the information presented and supported with details or examples if possible. Remember that to receive the maximum points, it is not how much you say but rather how well you present and support your viewpoint and give your information that matters. If you are writing more than one essay, leave space so you can go back and add things that occur to you later.

Standardized Testing Fails the Exam

If you run out of time ch2. It is better to get them down in some format than to leave them out altogether. Write legibly in complete sentences and paragraphs. If you have time, reread your essay and correct any grammatical, spelling, or punctuation errors. Always use all of the time allocated to review and improve your essay. The more time you spend on your essay, the better your score is likely to be.

Constructed Response Improves Instruction and Student Learning Once you have selected the learning standard to be measured, created the activity, presented and discussed the rubric, helped students understand the appropriate terms and vocabulary, and observed student performance, you should be able to identify the areas where students either individually or as a group may need more work. Constructedresponse activities provide valuable insight into the skills and understandings that students can actually apply to problems or transfer to real-life situations. Many jobs—such as doctor, lab worker, realtor, carpenter, and even teacher—require individuals to demonstrate mastery of specific skills before they are allowed to have a license in their chosen field of employment.

It seems reasonable that students, similarly, should be asked to go beyond merely selecting the multiple-choice bubble to demonstrate their understandings and should instead be asked to actually apply knowledge and understanding in a more authentic, hands-on task. In the next chapters, we will look at examples of open-ended activities that can inspire you to create tasks that require students to use the skills of analysis, synthesis, evaluation, and interpretation as they learn and grow.

The following chapters will help you understand various instructional strategies that invite students to think deeply and process information at the levels necessary for success both in the classroom and on state assessments. Chapters 3—6 are dedicated to each specific content area. If you only teach one content area, you may wish to read only that specific content chapter and then pick your reading back up in Chapter 7.

Some questions require using information found at the literal level, while many other questions require a deeper understanding and handling of more implicitly stated ideas and connections. In other words, students have to read text, analyze or synthesize what they have read, and then produce a response based on this thinking. Questions are designed so that students must apply several different skills to complete the acts of comprehending, interpreting, and evaluating various aspects of text. On most state tests, reading is measured as an active, reflective, and problem-solving process.

This chapter will discuss how language arts teachers can help students improve their performance on state reading assessments. Reading standards across the country are organized around the three types of text: literary, nonfiction, and technical. This means that language arts teachers need to expose students to all three types of text on a regular basis. Begin with a thorough analysis of your state standards as well as any sample test items that your state has released.

Appendix A lists Web sites to help you locate this information. As you review available samples, be sure to take extensive notes about the genres and types of text your students will likely see on the exam. Will they encounter only fiction? Are some of the passages drawn from textbook-like passages in social studies or science? What genres are likely to be presented to students? Having a clear picture of the expectations will help you craft lessons that better prepare students for taking the tests.

For example, if students are responsible for analyzing or responding to poetry on state assessments, be sure that working with poetry is frequently an instructional target throughout the school year. If tests will require that students describe a picture or write a story about what they see in a picture, then they should be asked to do these activities during the year. In most states, reading assessments at the elementary level will likely reflect a blend of literary, nonfiction, and technical text passages, so we must be careful to balance our instruction so that students have experience with each type of text.

Assessments for middle and high school students will likely have a much heavier emphasis on nonfiction, content-based, and technical texts. They are expected to remember what they have read and to be able to make personal connections to the text even when they are choosing the best answer from a list of multiple-choice possibilities. At higher performance levels, students will be asked to interpret meaning or analyze various aspects of the text.

Examples of a constructed-response task that students might experience are the following: ch3. Use examples from the text to support your response. Discuss the changes that occur and what prompted these changes. It also requires that students choose ideas and statements with direct links to the text to support their essay. As we know, this is a complex task and a tall order for many students. Because newer reading tests tend to use global questioning more frequently than literal questions, we must ensure that students develop the ability to grasp the entirety of what they are reading.

It is critical that students learn to process text holistically and respond to what they read. This chapter describes many strategies to build these skills on a daily basis. By regularly performing tasks that mirror what is required on state assessments, our students will become better prepared to apply their knowledge and skills at assessment time. If students respond to these four text elements on a regular basis during daily instruction, the items on state tests will be familiar and comfortable for them. In many states, reading tests consist of two parts: a multiple-choice section and a section where students develop their own, longer responses.

On the multiple-choice portion, students must select the correct answer from four or five provided statements. The constructedresponse part may be short-answer questions, where students are asked to write a few sentences based on a specific text passage, or essay questions, where students are asked to respond by developing an original, well-organized essay based on the selected text.

Together, the multiple-choice and constructed-response items produce the score the student will receive on the reading subtest. If your state has not yet included any constructed-response items on the state reading assessment, it is highly likely that it will at the next revision. The heavier the test is on constructed-response items, the more difficult it is for students. For this reason, it is essential that all teachers understand how to help students maximize their performance on assessments that contain multiple-choice as well as constructedresponse questions. Understanding what students will need to do is the first step toward improving student performance.

Global questions require that the student be able to understand the text, summarize the information to obtain the general gist the author is trying to convey, and then synthesize this information into some type of response. Global questions are often put into multiple-choice formats since they are fairly simplistic and are derived directly from the text content.

When presented with several specific choices, many students are able to filter the responses and identify the correct answer. Had these students simply been asked to construct an answer without the benefit of any additional clues, they may not have been able to accurately complete the task. They may have some understanding of the gist of the paragraph, but their comprehension does not extend to the application, analysis, synthesis, or evaluation level. This happens because although students are used to identifying a correct answer, they have not been taught to apply their thinking at the deepest levels.

Global questions can also form the basis for short-answer assessment questions where the student is expected to respond with a few brief sentences. Use examples from the story to support your viewpoint. Instead of simply asking students to answer questions about text passages from memory, we should teach students to go back and skim articles to find explicit information in the passage. Instead of simply accepting a response, ask students to provide the page number and the paragraph where the information can be found as they respond. In this way, ch3.

This will be useful on state tests. We can also deepen student understanding of text by asking students to summarize the gist of the articles they read. One good way to help students understand how to summarize information is to demonstrate the thinking a good reader uses during this process by displaying and reading to the class a short article on the overhead. Start by listing key details that the students remember from the article. If necessary, turn on the overhead only to verify a missing detail or fact that is needed. Once the students have listed most of the key facts, ask them to help you organize the information into a meaningful paragraph or two about the topic of the article.

Provide additional modeling and practice until students can easily write the gist of text by themselves. This strategy will help students learn how to summarize text and also how to paraphrase research rather than copying it verbatim from a source. Give students frequent opportunities to locate information, cite page and paragraph, and summarize the gist of articles they read whenever possible. Ask them to begin writing several sentences or a paragraph or two to summarize what they read each time they read text.

Have students share their summaries and discuss the traits that make a good summary. By asking students to think about a passage and boil it down to a few key ideas, you are helping them learn to process text at the global level. Make the Connections Personal The second type of question on state assessments asks students to make a personal connection to text. Students are often asked to use the information in the text to form an opinion or make a connection based on their own background knowledge.

Although personal response questions can be found on multiple-choice sections of state reading tests, they are more commonly found in short-answer or more complex constructed-response sections where the student will write a few brief sentences or a longer essay. Here are some typical examples ch3.

Teach to the Test? Just Say No | Reading Rockets

In all probability, the information would be inferential, and students would have to use their own personal understandings and connections to make the interpretations and provide an acceptable response. Depending on the length of the text, these types of questions generally have a limited range of acceptable responses. Cite four reasons from the text to justify your answer. Use information from the passage to explain why or why not. What information makes you think this? Cite information from the text to support your response. Use examples from the story to support your answer. In many cases, they also need to support their answer by making links back to the story or by citing information directly from the text. You can help students develop familiarity with responding to these types of questions by asking them to do these tasks orally and by frequently modeling your own connections to text.

Ask students to think about ways that they are like the characters in the text or how their lives are affected by information that they read. Students like to talk about themselves, so getting them to relate their own experiences to text is a helpful way to prepare them to answer questions that require them to make personal connections to the text. Helping students think about and relate to the characters and the events happening in the text can substantially increase student comprehension. According to Keene and Zimmerman , comprehension improves when students can relate text to themselves and to other texts they are reading, as well as to the larger world around them.

While reading stories, articles, and poems, ask students for their opinions with questions like these: ch3. Why or why not? Give me some examples from the story to support your viewpoint. Give some examples from the text to support your opinions. Provide time for students to share these connections with you and with small groups of other students from time to time. Encourage students to compare and contrast their own lives with the lives and events in the stories they are reading and to ask questions of one another about things they did not understand in the text.

Being able to discuss text with peers can be beneficial to struggling readers as well as to students for whom English is a second language. Gradually, with modeling and thinking aloud, move your students to writing a paragraph or two about the characters with specific examples pulled from the text to show their connections and ideas. By constantly practicing making personal connections to text, students will easily develop the skills ch3.

Students who are often asked to formulate their own connections to people, places, and events in the text they are reading are well prepared to do the same at assessment time. Interpretive Questions The third type of question commonly found on state assessments requires students to examine the information and combine it with what they already know about a topic to synthesize or interpret a response. Interpretive responses are not explicitly stated in the text but require students to make interpretations about the information to answer the question.

In many cases, these types of questions require a more indepth answer. As a result, they are frequently used for short-answer or more lengthy responses rather than in multiple-choice sections. List three details or examples from the story to support your conclusions. Provide reasons to justify your answer. Cite specific information from the passage that helps the reader understand this. In most cases, these responses can require a much longer, more open-ended response since students will also be asked to draw information from the passage to support or justify their ideas.

In many cases, the response will be scored on whether the student has presented a plausible explanation that is supported with concrete evidence from the text. Being asked to synthesize information, arrive at an analysis, and formulate an organized response that meets specific criteria is where performance falls apart for many students. While each of the three types of questions discussed so far could be formatted as a multiple-choice, a fill-in-the-blank, or a more demanding constructed-response item, some types of questions lend themselves better to essay response formats than to multiple-choice formats or fill-in-the-blank formats.

Essay questions require a much higher level of critical thinking and a deeper level of understanding on the part of the respondent. This is the level of thinking where students encounter the most difficulty. As a result, we must make a special effort to build student familiarity and capability in this area. Give details and examples from the text to support your point of view.

Provide information from the text to support your opinion. Support your ideas with details and examples from the text. Does this humanization make the story seem unrealistic, or does it make it more meaningful to the reader? Give examples from the text to support your opinion. Give details and examples from the story to support your point of view. Not only must students understand the gist of the text, but they must be able to delve deeper and gain insights far beyond where superficial readings might lead them.

When we plan our lessons, we strive for this level of performance. Do More with Less The three levels at which students should be trained to read are as follows: 1. What the text says—students write a summary to show understanding. How the text is organized—students pull out examples and illustrations or arguments or contrast viewpoints to clarify information.

What it means—students seek the interpretation of a text and make connections.

Standardized Testing: The Good, The Bad, & The Ugly

Often students read superficially and think that they have understood a text. One reading might look at personal connections; the next might be from an interpretive or critical perspective on the point the author was trying to make. Do more with less to deepen student understanding. Know what the expectations are for your grade level. Are students expected to identify genres?

Must they be able to identify mood, tone, or theme? Do they need to understand and be able to identify examples of personification? Will they need to identify the main idea of a text ch3. Do they need to analyze how an author writes or develops the characters in the text?

Once you understand the skills that students will be expected to demonstrate, then students should practice these skills regularly so that there abilities are well honed by the time they are expected to apply these same skills on a state assessment. Students must learn to reflect and analyze text deeply to answer the most complex type of constructed-response questions.

They will already know that their students can perform well on the tasks they will be required to do. Does the title provide any idea about what the author wants readers to learn from this text? Inferences are educated guesses based on our own background knowledge and the evidence we see.

For example, we infer people are thirsty if they ask for a glass of water, tired if they yawn, happy if they are smiling, or cold if they are putting on a sweater or a coat. In fact, our students infer what kind of mood we are in the moment they walk through the classroom door each day. Making an inference is a thought process by which we come to a conclusion based on the information we have received while reading or observing.

We infer information about events that are happening and the motives and intentions of other people, as well as the meaning things have for us. We accept or reject information based on our interpretations of these observations. People with good inferential comprehension skills can think more deeply about the meaning of text and what they are reading.

They can develop insights and draw conclusions that others may miss. They can answer questions that come from insights beyond the literal. Sometimes we settle for superficial comprehension when a more thorough understanding of less material would produce more quality ch3. Asking open-ended questions like these can get students thinking more deeply to determine that they are really making sense of the text and can make connections with the events and people being depicted. In text, we must make inferences only from what the author tells us or from the actions attributed to each character.

Good readers make inferences by comparing the words they see or hear with their own background knowledge, social customs, and communication patterns. We make sense of text by using this background knowledge to recognize implications and draw conclusions. Although struggling readers frequently have difficulty grasping inferences in written passages, this does not mean that they lack skill in this area. These students are often highly skilled in watching and interpreting what goes on in their own personal environment since their very survival may depend on doing so.

Because reading is sometimes slow and laborious for these students, problems with fluency may be preventing them from identifying the same clues that they would readily pick up visually. We often find that struggling readers have not learned to visualize things in their minds while reading. Without the ability to visualize what is happening, they often miss the subtle clues that would otherwise provide them with information about the events taking place. A good way to help these students is to read orally to them with short breaks every three to four paragraphs to summarize what is happening.

Provide these students with short descriptive passages to read that require making inferences. Ask them to illustrate with drawings what is happening as the story progresses. This will help them improve comprehension by thinking about and visualizing the text they are reading. The following passage is an example of a text that would be good to ask struggling readers to read and illustrate. He had passed many of the other horses on the field by the time he came down the home stretch. As the bell sounded, Bobby threw his popcorn high into the air, let out a happy whoop filled with all of the pentup excitement he had been holding, and hugged his father with all of his might.

Tell students that reading is like solving a puzzle with their minds just as they do with their eyes while looking at a situation. Continue the process of stopping and asking struggling readers to practice sketching out what they are seeing in their minds whenever the text lends itself to making inferences and drawing conclusions. Another good idea for helping students improve their visualization skills is to provide short, highly visual poetry such as haiku. Read the poem aloud, and ask students to draw a picture of the scene or object the author is describing. Again, the more students practice visualizing what is described in text, the better they will become at grasping the meaning of text.

Frump and Ms. Scott each have different viewpoints with regard to money. Compare and contrast these two viewpoints. First, students must be able to read and summarize the story they have been asked to read. If they cannot summarize the text in a meaningful way, they will find it difficult to use the information to draw conclusions or make comparisons. In this case, summarization is a foundational skill for being able to compare and contrast characters or elements of a story.

Next, our students must be able to identify personal characteristics. What vocabulary is appropriate for describing people? How do we compare people? How will students organize their ideas? Do students know how to use graphic organizers to organize their thoughts? Will students need to make inferences, or is all of the information explicitly stated in the text? What skills do students still need to effectively draw conclusions or make inferences? Once they have outlined the similarities and differences, students will have to write an organized essay and be able to include specific information from the text to support their viewpoint.

Do students understand how to construct an accurate, logical, and well-organized paragraph to present their thoughts and ideas? Do students know how to select passages that demonstrate their point of view? Do they know how to appropriately cite information from the text to support their ideas and conclusions? When we break the task down into the component parts, we can quickly see where we will need to spend additional ch3. Using your knowledge about the students you teach, you can design activities to take your students from where they are to where they will need to be.

Clearly, this progress will not happen without focused instruction and guided practice throughout the year.

Standardized tests negatively impact education

At this level, students may need to be able to use more literary terms to compare and contrast main characters. They may need to understand literary terms like round versus flat characters, antagonist versus protagonist, or other such literary concepts. Again, your state standards should help you identify what terms, concepts, and understandings your students will need at assessment time. Students will also need a more sophisticated vocabulary to describe character traits than they do at the elementary level.

To make comparison statements at the secondary level, students may need to understand character descriptors such as gullible, unforgiving, negative, or trustworthy, to name just a few. They will also need to understand how to analyze how the author presents or develops the characters as the narration unfolds. By helping students expand their descriptive vocabulary, you are likely also helping them raise their performance level.

Just as the elementary students did, secondary students will also need to know how to organize their thoughts, identify similarities and differences, and select appropriate references that support their point of view. They will be expected to present a logical argument that is accurate, organized, and convincing. As we plan our instruction, the answers to each of these questions will guide the depth of our teaching. With guided practice and thorough feedback that shapes their abilities, we can help our students learn to effectively respond to such questions as accurately and completely as possible.

Discuss how it is similar to or different from the traditions in the Eskimo home. Use details and examples from the story to support your response. Use ideas or examples from the story to support your viewpoint.

Use examples from the story to support your opinions. For this reason, the first step in preparing students to compare and contrast people is to ensure that your students have the vocabulary and concept understanding to be able to identify personal traits both in themselves and for characters in text. Even advanced students can always use more work in this area since vocabulary can always be enlarged. Ask students to brainstorm, either as a class or in small groups, all of the words they know that can ch3.

Be sure that students can give examples or explanations to illustrate more difficult concepts that are named. This activity will help you diagnose which words your students already have in their background knowledge and which words you might want to introduce.